1. Do your updates

Do your updates! As software companies learn about vulnerabilities, they send out fixes. By not doing updates, you are making an attackers job easy by letting them use known exploits against you. Any software that is on your computer needs to be kept up to date. For example:

This isn’t a complete list by any means. Every piece of software on your computer needs to be kept up to date or it may turn into an exploitable vulnerability. By using a applications auto-update features, you get the protection without the effort.

2. If you can remember all of your passwords, you are doing it wrong

Passwords are absolutely essential to good computer security. Using weak passwords and reusing passwords are some of the most common mistakes that people make. Unfortunately, these mistakes make any potential breach, such as hacking someone’s email, much more serious. If you reuse passwords then getting your password for one thing often means they have your password for a lot of other things too. Hackers will use what is known as a credential stuffing attack to increase the impact of a breach. This means they will take compromised credentials and try them on a lot of websites automatically to see if they work other places. This means, if a website does have a breach you need to change the password on any other accounts that use the same password. It is far better to just not reuse passwords.

The best way to do this is to use a password manager. These programs will securely store your passwords for you. This means you only have one password to remember, the master password for your password manager. All the other passwords, you can forget about. This allows you to make them all very strong and unique without having to worry. Most password managers will also generate secure passwords for you. Some good ones are:

All of these password managers have a free level that you can try to get started. Even their premium levels are very affordable.

3. A Long Password is a Strong Password

The most important thing you can do to make a good password is make it long. As password length increases its strength goes up exponentially. If you simply increase the complexity, strength only increases linearly.

So if your password is kdiosn there are 266 or 308,915,776 possibilities.

If you increase the complexity by adding upper and lower case letters so your password is KdIOsn there are 526 or 18,770,609,664 possibilities.

On the other hand if you double the length instead of the complexity, and make the password kdiosnplanew then there are 2612 or 94,289,566,600,000,000 possibilities. That is 4,826,809 times stronger that KdIOsn.

This assumes a random password that is not subject to a dictionary attack. A dictionary attack is where attackers have huge lists of commonly used passwords. Use your password manager to generate random passwords that are 16 digits long (or longer) and you will be very secure from someone guessing your password.

For your master password, this unfortunately won’t work. There are two methods to deal with this.

  1. Use the first letter of every word in a phrase. For example, “To be or not to be that is the question” becomes tbontbtitq. It is hard to get a really long password like this, and it could possibly be subject to a dictionary attack if you use a very common phrase, but it is decently strong and easily remembered.
  2. Use a passphrase. This takes a string of four or five unrelated words to make a passphrase. A classic example is Correct Horse Battery Staple. For added complexity, you can change the separator to something other than a space (yes spaces are valid to use in a password) Correct%Horse%Battery%Staple, change or alternate the case CORRECT%horse%BATTERY%staple or add padding digits at the beginning and end 26CORRECT%horse%BATTERY%staple52. The key is that we are good at remembering strings of words, but they are still difficult for computers to brute force. As long as you are actually using random words, this is a very secure method. For help choosing a random passphrase, check out diceware. Remember, if you are using a password generator, you should only need to remember one password.

4. Don’t rely on passwords

When authenticating your identity (which is really what passwords are all about) there are a number of ways (factors) that can be used. You can rely on something you know (a password, pin number, secret question, etc), something you have (texting a code to your cell phone or emailing you a code, requiring a hardware key such as a yubikey, etc) or something you are (facial recognition, thumbprint, etc). Most account use passwords as a single factor for authentication. However, many sites are now moving to using two factor authentication. This typically means texting you a code when you try to sign in, or in the case of google, having a smart phone app that generates codes that are needed to login. This ensures that even if someone steals your password, they can’t get into your account without also having your cell phone.


  1. Extremely secure
  2. Normally very convenient


  1. Many sites don’t support two factor authentication
  2. Normally requires a smart phone although there are other types of two factor authentication

If it is available, two factor authentication is by far the best and most secure way to set up your accounts

5. If you don’t back it up, you don’t care about it

Backups protect important information against malicious acts (such as ransomware), accidents (hard drive dies or computer is lost), and disasters (home burns down). The 3-2-1 ensures that your backups are protected against all of these. Backup anything that you can’t be easily replaced on your computer.

3 copies of your data ensures redundancy. A virus or hardware failure won’t wipe out your data.

2 different types of media means you aren’t storing both copies on the same hard drive. Having one copy on your computer and one copy on an external hard drive or thumb drive means that your computer dying or getting stolen won’t mean you lose everything.

1 copy offsite protects against disasters such as your house burning down or getting flooded. One copy being physically separated means you have a safe copy regardless. Cloud backups are a popular way to get an offsite backup.

Compare Cloud backup software at:

6. Backups are worthless, restores are priceless

In February 2017, Gitlab lost six hours worth of customer data. They had multiple backup systems in place, yet all of them failed because they weren’t properly tested and monitored. The only reason that they didn’t lose more data is that an engineer working there had made a manual backup earlier in the day.

Backups can fail for a number of reasons. Regularly checking that you can restore files from your backups means that when you need your backups, they won’t fail you.

7. Send letters, not postcards

When you send unencrypted traffic on the internet, it is like sending a postcard. Anyone along the path can read it. By using end to end encryption, you make sure that only the people that you want to read your message can do so. This is a feature that you should look for with any type of internet connected traffic you send.

The most common internet traffic is HTTP traffic. This is how your web browser loads websites. When you check your email, go to your bank, buy something on Amazon, or look at cute kitty pictures, it is done over HTTP. However, HTTP has no encryption built in. To address that, a more secure protocol was created that is called HTTPS. These days, all websites should be using HTTPS. It provides end to end encryption. Like sending a letter, observers can see where the traffic is going, but can’t read the message. In more technical terms, HTTPS does not protect metadata, but does protect content. This means an observer can see that you are going to, but won’t be able to see any of your traffic like your password or account number. They can see you are going to, but can’t see what condition you are looking up. Any traffic you send that isn’t protected by HTTP can be seen by anybody in the traffic’s route.

This applies to messaging as well. Texting using SMS is very convenient, but provides no security at all. Apps such as iMessage and WhatsApp provide more security. If you really want to chat securely, use Signal. This provides strong end to end encryption and is very secure. It is as easy to use as normal text messaging, but prevents any snooping on your messages. You can even set your messages to auto destruct after a set length of time if you want to.

End to end encryption is the minimum that you should do, but as discussed earlier, it doesn’t protect your metadata. To really be protected, you should use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). This creates an encrypted tunnel to the VPN provider. All anyone watching your traffic will see is that you are connected to the VPN. Obviously, since you are routing all your traffic through your vpn provider, they need to be trustworthy. There have been cases where shady VPN providers were caught tracking their customers and selling this information. Ideally, your vpn provider will be well known, keep no logs, and have gone through a security audit to check for vulnerabilities.

Unfortunately, all of the reputable VPN providers cost money. The will sometimes have a limited free tier, but it will generally be something that you have to pay for. Private Internet Access is probably the most popular provider, but there are many more. You can look on Wikipedia for a comparison of virtual private network services to get an overview of what is out there or you could even host your own. Instructions can be found online, such as these for hosting your own OpenVPN server on Digital Ocean: Note: you could do this on any virtual private server (vps), Digital Ocean just has very good documentation.

8. Practice defensive browsing

The internet is full of people who want to profit off of you. The most benign of these simply want to show you ads, but many want to collect huge amounts of data on you, follow you from website to website, or even infect your computer with malware. We are still in the wild west stage of the internet, and you would do well to have a defensive mindset when browsing (or reading emails). There are some things that you can do to help your privacy and security.

You can increase your security and privacy by using these browser plugins.

  1. uBlock Origin - this ad blocker is very effective and light weight. It can be easily customized or disabled if you need to. It is available for chrome and for firefox. Using a good ad blocker will reduce your vulnerability to malvertising (serving malware through ads) and save a good chunk of bandwidth, making sites load faster.
  2. HTTPS Everywhere - this plugin forces sites to use an HTTPS version if one is available. It is put out by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. As discussed earlier, HTTPS is very important for maintaining your privacy and security online. It is available at for Firefox, Chrome, and Opera.
  3. Privacy Badger - Also from the EFF, privacy badger prevents online tracking. Many websites attempt to track your web browsing across many sites. Privacy badger blocks these trackers to keep companies from knowing about your browsing habits.

9. Don’t trust public WiFi

WiFi as it exists today is very insecure. You are essentially taking your traffic and broadcasting it with a radio. Open WiFi has no encryption of its own, so if you aren’t using an encrypted protocol such as HTTPS, your traffic can be seen by anyone with a WiFi card in range of your computer. This makes end to end encryption even more important. It isn’t just people in the traffics path that can intercept it now, it is anyone in the room.

The current security protocol used by WiFi is known as WPA2. Anything earlier such as WEP or WPA1 are considered broken and should not be used. WPA2 provides relatively good protection if the network password is a secret. However, it provides relatively little protection against other people on the same network. So using it for your home WiFi that only has trusted devices on it is relatively safe, but you should act like all your traffic can be seen if you are using public WiFi, even if it has a password. If you must use public WiFi, please use a VPN.

There is a new standard which will be coming out sometime in 2018 called WPA3 which will address many of the shortcomings of WPA2. This will be a big boost for WiFi security. It will allow encrypted communication on open and secured networks and will really boost the strength of the encryption.

10. Don’t trust email

Email is a huge attack vector for many people. You may get emails trying to trick you into giving up personal information (phishing) such as bank account numbers or passwords. You might get emails containing links to malicious files such as viruses, or even ransomware. The most important thing that you can do to avoid being a victim is learn to identify suspicious emails. Here are some things to look for:

So what can you do if you think an email is a scam?

If you follow these steps, you should be much better protected against scams. Keep in mind that these emails can be extremely convincing so regular trainings are helpful. There are even ways to phish your own organization for training. Tools such as Gophish can allow you to simulate phishing emails to train your own organization.